Environment Secretary Richard Lochhead said the funding will also safeguard hundreds more jobs "contributing to the massive success of Scotland's £14 billion food and drink sector".
The awards are the latest round of money to be distributed as part of the Food Processing, Marketing and Co-operation (FPMC) scheme, which is funded by the Scottish Government and the European Union.
The cash will help food processing companies improve, extend or build new facilities, with the Scottish Government saying 111 jobs will be created with a further 615 positions protected as a result of the investment.
The grants range from just over £39,000 to help R&K Drysdale Ltd in the Scottish Borders buy new vegetable weight and packing equipment, to £4o3,000 for We Hae Meat Ltd in South Ayrshire to extend and upgrade its processing and handling facilities; and almost £584,000 for Nessgro in Inverness, which the company will use to purchase washing and packing equipment for root vegetables.
Mr Lochhead said: "Scottish food and drink is world-renowned for its quality, taste and provenance and these latest grants will enable 12 more food and drink companies to expand their operations in response to growing demand for our delicious produce.
"This investment will create and safeguard hundreds of jobs, further contributing to the massive success of Scotland's £14 billion food and drink sector.
"It builds on the achievements of our last FPMC scheme which benefited 175 projects across Scotland and supported 8,500 jobs, as well as further investment and export opportunities.
"These latest awards demonstrate how the Scottish Government and our partners continue to deliver real and tangible support for food production in this country."